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Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish. Abstract. The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM) and fermented chicken manure (FCM) to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) which were classified into 7 groups (G). Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR), 0: 1. CM or FCM: % FR).
The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC) and total coliform count (TCC) were significantly high at P . Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR.
Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P . However all water and fish samples examined were free from E- coli O1. H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer. Keywords. Chicken manure; Fermented chicken manure; Total bacterial count; Total coliform count; Salmonella. Introduction. Worldwide more than 1 billion people rely on fish as an important source of animal proteins (i.
Omojowo and Omojasola, 2. Fisheries and aquaculture in Egypt are important components of the agricultural sector and a significant source of animal protein (Abo- Elela et al., 2. El- Naggar et al., 2.
Aquaculture is a real tool in increasing fish production, which was achieved through higher fish stocking density and the application of artificial feeding. Unfortunately, the cost of feeding is enormous; therefore interest has been diverted to other sources of enrichment of the water, such as using of animal manure.
Fish pond manuring is often used in fish farming for the intensification of fish production by balancing the ratio between carbon and other nutrients. The manure is directly consumed by fish, and the released nutrients support the growth of mainly photosynthetic organisms (Moav et al., 1.
Little and Edwards, 1. Additionally the manures were applied to produce some necessary plant nutrients which serve as a soil fertilizer by adding the organic matter (Sloan et al., 2. Download Driver Log Book on this page. Different kinds of manure can be utilized; cow, poultry dung and semi- liquid pig manure are of the highest interest (Govind et al., 1.
Wohlfarth and Schroeder, 1. Among manures used, chicken is preferred because of its ready solubility and high level of phosphorus concentrations (Knud- Hansen et al., 1. However, the use of manure, classified as hazardous organic matter originating from animal feces, poses a risk to the water environment (Mlejnkova and Sovova, 2. Additionally it represents great public health concern; owing to an increase in the concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in animal manure which is exaggerated by the confinement of farming system units with little exchange of water (Petersen et al., 2. Prithwiraj et al.
Persistence of pathogens in manures and in the water environment is one of the most important factors for infection transmission. It was found that zoonotic pathogens can survive in such environments up to 4 months, depending on the type of manure, temperature, p. H, oxygen level, ammonia concentration and the presence of competing organisms (Jones, 1. Guan and Holley, 2. Under the use of thermophilic fermentation of CM most of pathogens are destroyed. The thermophilic anaerobic process is effective against pathogenic bacteria (such as fecal coliform, salmonella and enterococcus) ( Watanabe et al., 1. Salmonella and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were inactivated within 2.
Sahlstrom, 2. 00. Information about the effect of manuring on water quality and fecal contamination is scarce.
Additionally the usual practice of fish pond owners to keep CM in tightly sealed plastic bags and leave it for some time in the sun, creates a condition resembling to some extent the anaerobic thermophilic fermentation process. So the aim of this study is to clarify the impact of using raw CM in fish farm environments on the occurrence of water pollution indicator bacteria, defining related potential health risks represented by pathogenic bacterial contamination especially the detection of Salmonella and E. Medicine, Kafr El- Shiekh University, Egypt. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), were used for this study. Fingerlings with a mean average weight of 1. Fish were homogeneous in size and body weight and apparently healthy. The fish were acclimatized for 7 days before the experiment.
They were fed on the same diet used in this study.